Innovative Water Treatment

The following innovative water treatment processes have been successfully demonstrated in water treatment applications.

Forward osmosis – A nonpressurized treatment technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to separate water from dissolved solutes. The semipermeable membrane acts as a barrier, allowing water to pass through but blocking larger molecules such as starches, sugars, salts, proteins, and bacteria.

Bank filtration – A treatment technique that involves filtering water from streams, rivers, or lakes through the natural banks of the water body. Suspended solids, bacteria, and other contaminants are removed or attenuated by this process.

Freeze–Thaw/evaporation (FTE®) – A treatment process that provides the opportunity for cost-effective treatment of brackish or contaminated water, wastewater, or produced water. Feedwater is subjected to outdoor subfreezing conditions (<32°F). Freezing water creates a matrix of water molecules, excluding contaminants that do not fit into the crystal matrix. The contaminants are subsequently concentrated into brine, which is drained from the ice to a separate pond. Meltwater from the ice pile is of relatively high quality and suitable for reuse.