Energy–Water Nexus

Energy-Water Nexus
Quick Facts
  • Energy and water demand are intimately linked.
  • Approximately 25 gallons of water is needed (primarily for steam cooling) to produce 1 kilowatt hour (kWh) of electricity, but only 2 gallons is lost in the process through evaporation.
  • According to the International Water Management institute, overall global energy use is expected to increase nearly 50 percent from 2007 to 2035.
  • Electricity production is projected to increase to over 5200 billion kWh by the year 2025.
  • By 2045, the world population will increase to 9 billion people, and water withdrawals are expected to increase by 50 percent.

Energy and Water Integration Act
The Energy and Water Integration Act was introduced to Congress in March 2009. This bill supports an in-depth analysis of the impact of energy development and production on U.S. water resources (111th Congress). Key energy–water research includes the following:
  • Assessment of water used in electricity production
  • Energy and water efficiency technology advancement:
    • Freshwater use minimization
    • Water use efficiency expansion
    • Alternative water source utilization
  • Enhanced energy and water resource data collection:
    • Power plant water use